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Australian Nanotechnology Alliance Nanovate: Nanotechnology Industry News and Views
Issue #1 - March 2007

In This Issue


News: Contributed Articles: Member News: Events:

News


Message from the NanoVate Editor

It is with great pleasure that I welcome you to the inaugural edition of NanoVate, the official newsletter of the Australian Nanotechnology Alliance (ANA). The aim of this monthly newsletter is to keep you up to date with what is happening at the ANA, and to keep you informed about the world of nanotechnology, in Australia and overseas. Each future edition will have a theme, with articles and news items reflecting that theme. This month we have two contributed articles on very different topics. One from Queensland University of Technology concerning organic-nano photovoltaic devices, and a second from the University of Queensland on surfactants. The theme for next month is "Nanotechnology in Consumer Products". Additionally, we aim to keep you informed about nanotechnology regulation issues, currently an area of growing interest World-wide, as part of our "Nanotech in the News" section.

At NanoVate, we welcome contributions and feedback to the newsletter. Interested parties can write articles, comment on news items, even tell us what you think about this newsletter. If you wish to contact me directly, feel free to use this email address: editor@nanotechnology.org.au.

I would also like to encourage everyone to peruse the ANA web site and participate in the blog sessions. In the meantime, I hope you enjoy reading this first edition of NanoVate.

Gary Day



ANA's Inaugural Newsletter – Message from President Steven Healy

Steve Healy It has been less than 12 months since the ANA's launch (May 2006) and already nanotechnology stakeholders have been provided with the resources to self assemble into project based partnerships with members involved in research and new product development, because of the activities of the the Australian Nanotechnology Alliance.

ANA's subcommittees have initiated policy discussions examining four areas: Infrastructure, Business, Employment/Skills, and Regulation. Through involvement in these areas we ensure the voice of our nascent technology cluster is heard in policy debates and hence promoting regional innovation, economic development and jobs growth. We started the process in 2006 and we need your help in 2007 to continue our journey. I encourage your involvement in our subcommittee structures.

We have created a hybrid business model to ensure the strategic success of ANA. Success means we continue building research and commercial outcomes. As Sean Murdock of the US based NanoBusiness Alliance stated, "While knowledge development and nanoscience R&D create value, it is through the commercialisation of nanotechnology into new processes and products that businesses will create jobs and nations will see a return on their investments."

As I look back over 2006, I am impressed with the recognition we have achieved on promoting nanotechnology. Our seminar and cocktail series were heavily supported, to which I thank all of you.

The ANA's agenda for 2007 will see us continue to position the economic impact of science, and nanotechnology in particularly. The ABC's 7.30 Report recently reported on the declining number of science and engineer graduates. Students, in the report, said they couldn't see a career path, while employers of science graduates can't find the appropriate staff.

This is an issue that ANA will discuss and reporting to decision makers. I look forward to keeping you informed on our developments developments and welcome your thoughts, either via our web's blog session or by email at info@nanotechnology.org.au.

Steven Healy - ANA President



Nanotech in the News

Regulating Nano – and so it begins
Many people will have seen the many and varied articles on regulating nanoparticles, ranging from careful study of potential negative effects, to banning them until every risk possible has been identified.1 Interestingly, the Berkeley City Council is the first Government body in the USA (and possibly the World) to regulate the use of nanoparticles as of mid-December last year.[2] The new code forces researchers and manufacturers to report what nanotechnology materials they are working with and how they are handling them. They won't be the last as Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the USA appear to be lining up to do something similar as well.[3]

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) late last year said it would regulate silver nanoparticles, often used in socks, shoes and washing machines, due to their anti-bacterial properties. The agency is concerned about the non-discriminatory nature of the anti-bacterial effect, and possible damage to the aquatic environment.[4] In line with this they have also released a Nanotechnology White Paper which contains information on why the EPA is interested in nanotechnology, potential environmental benefits, risk assessments issues and a discussion on responsible development of nanotechnology.[5]

Meanwhile in Europe, the EU has allocated € 3.5 billion for funding nanotechnology related research, which includes calls for proposals on a range of activities related to risk assessment of nanomaterials. Proposals can originate from researchers within the EU and most other countries.[6]

Under a new agreement, the US EPA and the European Commission, the executive arm of the EU, have agreed on a bilateral research framework which covers the science of information in ecology and environmental science.[7] The agreement entitled, “Implementing Arrangement on Environmental Research and Ecoinformatics”, covers uses and impacts of nanotechnology, environmental information systems, sustainability indicators, environment modeling, health, sustainable chemistry and materials, environmental technologies and air quality management.

Nanotech consumer surveys

The largest and most comprehensive study of public perceptions in relation to the risks and benefits of nanotechnology has been conducted. The research was based on more than 5,500 survey responses and was performed by researchers at Rice University's Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology (CBEN), University College London (UCL) and the London Business School. This survey appeared in the December 2006 issue of Nature Nanotechnology.

As reported in the Rice University press release entitled "Study finds consumers neutral on risks, benefits of nanotechnology products":[8]

"The largest and most comprehensive survey of public perceptions of nanotechnology products finds that US consumers are willing to use specific nano-containing products — even if there are health and safety risks — when the potential benefits are high. The study also finds that US consumers rate nanotechnology as less risky than everyday technologies, like herbicides, chemical disinfectants, handguns and food preservatives. The research challenges the assumption that the public focuses narrowly on risk."

"It was clear that people were thinking about more than risk," lead researcher Steven Currall said. “The average consumer is pretty shrewd when it comes to balancing risks against benefits, and we found that the greater the potential benefits, the more risks people are willing to tolerate.”

Also in the release:

“We propose that academic bodies like the UK's Royal Society and the US's National Academies set up interagency clearinghouses to coordinate public education and synthesize the latest scientific findings,” said Neal Lane, senior fellow in science and technology policy at the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy. “Transmitting the latest information about both risks and benefits in a timely, thorough and transparent way will minimize the likelihood of a polarized public debate that turns on rumour and supposition.”


Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to be studied

The French National Research Council have commissioned a three year study concerning the toxicity of carbon nanotubes.[9] World-wide production of carbon nanotubes is currently in the order of hundreds of tonnes per year and they have been incorporated into many consumer products.

The French scientists will look at how carbon nanotubes affect aquatic environments, especially amphibians. The effects of nanotubes on humans will also be examined by, "…studying how so-called macrophage cells interact with carbon nanotubes, as well as observing if the lungs of mice produce an inflammatory reaction when exposed to these materials". Previous studies had shown, "…certain proteins were absorbed in vitro onto carbon nanotubes when put into contact with human plasma and serum. The body could treat nanotubes as foreign agents and lead to inflammatory reactions."

Carbon nanotube production methods will also be examined.

Nanotech based toothpaste
A Japanese company, Japan's Sangi Company, Ltd., claims that the nanosized crystals of hydroxyapatite in their toothpaste product “…forms a protective film on tooth enamel, and even restores the surface in damaged areas, and that "repairing cavities is not far away".[10] With 50 million tubes sold, the Japanese clearly think nanotechnology is a good thing.

Big Statements
"Nanotechnology will completely restructure industries and economies and is recognized as technology disruptive to every field. Entire business segments are going to disappear while new exciting segments will be created. Major government initiatives by countries all over the world and large funds have already been committed to win the nanotechnology race." Dr. Zvi Yaniv, CEO, Applied Nanotech, Inc.[11]

"The convergence of genetic engineering, nanotechnology and robotics will allow humans to change their bodies in profoundly new ways. In the next 15 years, people may be able to rearrange their genes to change their physical features, extend their lifespan, merge their brains with computers and their bodies with robots, among many other remarkable developments." Rob Millard.12

References

  1. Example, http://www.foe.org/camps/comm/nanotech/nanocosmetics.pdf
  2. http://www.nanotechwire.com/news.asp?nid=4149&ntid=116&pg=1
  3. http://www.smalltimes.com/articles/...
  4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/22/AR2006112201979.html
  5. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=1473.php
  6. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=1450.php
  7. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=1427.php
  8. http://www.media.rice.edu/media/NewsBot.asp?MODE=VIEW&ID=9143
  9. http://nanotechweb.org/articles/news/6/1/9/1
  10. http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=1091.php
  11. http://www.nanotx06.com/
  12. http://www.robmillard.com/archives/competitive-intelligence-forecasts-for-the-next-25-years.html



Public Support for Science & Innovation – Productivity Commission draft report released

The Productivity Commission, the Australian Government's review and advisory body on microeconomic policy, released in November the draft report on Public Support for Science and Innovation. The 14 draft recommendations met in principle support from the ANA who contributed a submission and organised a round table discussion in Brisbane with the review's chief, Dr. Steven Kates. Commenting on the ANA's response to the report, executive member Dr. Peter Kambouris said, “While the report touches upon the role of financial, consulting or single industry association intermediaries, ANA believes these organisations only provide limited vertical support to a sector within the science/innovation community. In contrast, across sector and stakeholder intermediary groups with globally accepted triple helix organisational structures, have no ulterior motive but to see growth within the community, and it is these groups that have been largely omitted from the report's findings. Such intermediaries have genuine commitment to new and existing research stocks and the development of benefits to the community that would not have occurred in the absence of the facilitating organisations.”



Queensland Government's Smart State Innovation Funds

The latest round of the Queensland Government's Smart State Innovation Funds has been launched, and round 2 applications close on Wednesday, 7 March, 2007. Information about the scheme can be found here.



Cross-Industry Collaboration Survey

Stephanie Schleimer is inviting you to participate in a cross-industry survey which aims at finding solutions to enhance the ways firms such as yours can improve their internal and external collaborative practices in developing new products/services with other firms.

This survey will provide highly relevant information for your firm within your industry sector and across several other industry sectors. So far 7 different Australian industry associations are taking part in the study (e.g., AEEMA, ITS, AMTIL, AIIA, WSITC). You are encouraged to participate and provide your opinions and perceptions on issues affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of your firm's collaborative practices.

This research is part of Stephanie's Ph.D. research project undertaken at the Griffith Business School (Griffith University in Brisbane). The survey is conducted online. This method of collecting data will allow her to provide you with essential information on your firm's current internal and external collaborative practices compared to those of firms located in the same and different industry sectors.

Results of this research are aimed to provide you with:

  1. An assessment of the most effective combination of a firm's internal and external collaborative practices in your sector and other industry sectors.
  2. A comparison on collaborative practices between partnering firms and their effect on the joint new product/service development.
  3. Specific suggestions on how your firm can optimise existing and build new collaborative practices for a sustainable, competitive advantage.

Ensuring your confidentiality and anonymity:

This survey will take approximately 15 minutes and can be taken here.



Articles


Organic-Nano Photovoltaic Devices: an alternative to silicon solar cells
Roland G. S. Goh[1*], Eric R. Waclawik[2], John M. Bell[1], Nunzio Motta1 and T.E. Steinberg[1]

1. Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD.
2. Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical & Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD.

One important area in which nanotechnology is believed to have a major future role is in energy generation. Among several possible nanotechnology applications is development of new nanomaterials for solar cells, for fuel cells, the generation of hydrogen or as part of a technology to remove greenhouse gases from coal-fired power stations. Research at QUT is focused on several of these alternatives, including research on dye-sensitised solar cells,[1] (also called Graetzel cells after their inventor, Professor Michael Graetzel), and photocatalytic production of hydrogen using nano-structured titania materials.[2] Both these applications use titania, an abundant material which has very useful photocatalytic abilities, and which can efficiently convert light into useful energy. In this article we will focus on another very common material, carbon, in the form of carbon nanotubes, and its role in the next generation of photovoltaic materials – organic photovoltaics (OPVs).

The recent focus on climate change, probably induced by CO2 emissions from energy generation, have highlighted the critical need to develop inexpensive, renewable energy sources. Traditional photovoltaic (solar-to-electric conversion) technology is deemed too expensive to be a serious alternative to fossil fuels and even other competing, renewable energy sources. Advances in organic synthesis and characterisation techniques allows us for the first time to generate a photocurrent from organic, ‘soft’ molecules in a process that mimics photosynthesis in plants, potentially opening the way for cheap, ubiquitous solar cells. In particular conjugated polymers offer tremendous opportunities for innovation as they combine solution processibility with mechanical strength and tunable bandgaps. Conjugated polymer materials can be prepared with similar electrical and optical properties to semiconductors and metals, while still retaining the attractive mechanical properties and processing advantages of polymers.3 To create effective OPVs, incorporation of a second material, or dopant, into the conjugated polymer to create a composite has led to great improvements in device performance compared to polymer-only devices.[4,5] Table 1 shows a comparison of three of the main classes of solar cells in terms of efficiency (current known efficiency and theoretical limits), flexibility, and peak power per unit mass.

Table 1
table

[1] Bend around 12mm radius
[2] This is hard to estimate as DSC constructed with 2x3mm glass panes sandwiching the active layers also serve as windows – flexible metal based DSC are now being developed (see http://www.dyesol.com)


Figure 1. Organic solar cell structure (left), and an actual device (right).

We have fabricated nanocomposites from carbon nanotubes and conjugated poly(alkylthiophene) polymers (we use poly-3-hexylthiophene) as organic photovoltaic devices in the structure shown in Figure 1. By suitable functionalisation of the nanotubes, we readily dispersed the both components in a common organic solvent suitable for spin casting the composite films.[6,7]

The Nano Component
Carbon is a versatile element and can form many different allotropes. Graphite, diamond and fullerene (a bucky-ball formed by 60 carbon atoms in the same pattern as a soccer ball) are just three examples. Graphite is a form of carbon that consists of easily cleaved layers of carbon atoms which are bonded together in a honeycomb-like fashion. The bonding arrangement in graphite causes it to be a semimetal, which is electrically conductive. When a single sheet of the carbon honeycomb is rolled, it is possible to generate seamless carbon cylinders - carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are metallic or semiconducting, depending on their radius. They can be single-walled (SWNT) or multi-walled (MWNT). Their diameters span from 2 to 10 nm for the single walled, and 5 to 100 nm for the multi-walled variety. While their diameters are the same approximate size as a small organic molecule, they may be produced in lengths of up several centimeters. Their unique structure thus leads to surprising physical properties, like exceptional strength, high thermal conductivity, and electric conductivity along the tube. Since SWNTs have previously proven to be an effective electron transport component in OPVs,7 a structural study of a SWNT/conjugated polymer system is of interest since optical and electrical properties of conjugated polymer composites strongly depend upon polymer nanoscale structural organization.


Figure 2. Three different chiralities of single-walled carbon nanotubes (from Hirsch[8]).

Results
Our initial results (as well as those of other groups - e.g. Kymakis et al.[5]) have not been satisfactory, with efficiency spanning from 0.01% (us) up to 0.1%. Poor order in the microscopic arrangement, oxidation and pollution of the compound, presence of impurities or low grade of carbon nanotube purity can all be possible causes of these low efficiencies. However we have demonstrated more recently that polymer wrapping of carbon nanotubes, illustrated in Figure 3, can occur during the mixing and deposition process,[7] which we believe will significantly improve the charge transfer between the polymer and nanotube, facilitating improvements in efficiency. We have recently demonstrated that purification of the polymer and nanotube fractions (see Figure 4), and improved dispersion of the nanotubes results in a seven-fold increase in conductivity of the system.


Figure 3. A polymer wrapped in the SWNT-P3HT composite system, observed using scanning tunnelling microscopy. The polymer wraps coherently around the nanotube (from Goh et al.[7)].
Figure 4. As prepared carbon nanotube (left) and after purification (following the method of Furtado et al.[9]).

Future Research Directions
The key issue is to determine the cause of the low efficiency of this mixture. Two key questions which we plan to address are:

A key strategy for more widespread use of carbon nanotubes in a wide range of electronic devices (“molecular electronics”) is certainly the ability to produce “cleaner” carbon nanotubes with more defined and reproducible properties. We will be pursuing a novel program of microgravity fabrication of carbon nanotubes in an attempt to develop a fabrication process which can be more controlled. Nanostructure formation in silica sol-gels in the absence of gravity has been shown to have a significant impact on the bonding and nanostructures formed.[10] In the absence of gravity, there is no convection and mixing of the plasma in which carbon nanotubes form, and it is believed that under these conditions we should be able to control the diameters of carbon nanotubes produced. This will help us address the first question.

We have already shown that molecular order strongly affect P3HT film conductivity, and the use of templated growth in the seminconductor industry is widely known to lead to improved device performance (e.g., epitaxial growth in the GaAs/AlGaAs system). We plan to study the polymer wrapping effect in more detail over the next 12 months with different types of high-purity carbon nanotubes to address the issue of organic photovoltaic efficiency.

Acknowledgements
This work is supported by Air Force Office of Research under grant no. US AirForce AOARD-06-4041 and the Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage Grant LX0561885. R.G. acknowledges the QLD Government for a Smart State Award.

References

  1. O’Reagan, M. Grätzel, A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye-Sensitized Colloidal Ti0(2) Films, Nature 353,373 (1991)
  2. Ni, M. K. H. Leung, D. Y. C. Leung, and K. Sumathy, A review and recent developments in photocatalytic water-splitting using TiO2 for hydrogen production, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11, pp. 401-425, 2007
  3. Heeger, A. J. In Conjugated Polymers and Related Materials. The Interconnection of Chemical and Electronic Structure., Proceedings of the Eighty-first Nobel Symposium., Luleå, Sweden, June 13-18, 1991; Salaneck, W. R.; Lundström, I.; Rånby, B., Eds. Oxford University Press, 1993; pp 27 - 62.
  4. Spanggaard, H.; Krebs, F., C., A brief history of the development of organic and polymeric photovoltaics, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 83, 125-146, 2004.
  5. Kymakis, E.; Alexandrou, I.; Amaratunga, G. A. J., High open-circuit voltage photovoltaic devices from carbon-nanotube-polymer composites, Journal of Applied Physics, 93, 1764-1768, 2003.
  6. Roland G. S. Goh, John M. Bell, Nunzio Motta, and Eric R. Waclawik Microscopic and Spectroscopic Study of Self-Ordering in Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3929–3933, 2006
  7. Roland G.S. Goh, Nunzio Motta, John M. Bell, and Eric R. Waclawik, Effects of substrate curvature on the adsorption of Poly(3- hexylthiophene) on Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Applied Physics Letters 88, 053101-1 – 053101-3, 2006.
  8. Hirsch, A., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 41 (11), 1853 - 1859 (2002).
  9. Furtado, C.A. et al., Journal of American Chemical Society, 2004. 126: p. 6095-6105
  10. Pienaar, C.L., Chiffoleau, G.J.A., Martens, J.A., Kirschhock, C.E.A., Follens, L.R.A., Steinberg, T.A., Effect of Gravity on The Gelation of Silica Sol’s, Chemistry of Materials, 2007 (in press).



Surfactants, the Chemical World’s Quiet Achievers
Ian Gentle

The Brisbane Surface Analysis Facility, Department of Chemistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD.

Imagine if the detergent in your sink didn’t foam, or a cappuccino had no froth. If kids couldn’t blow bubbles. That’s what a world without surfactants would be like. The word surfactant is short for “surface active agent”, and it is used to describe molecules that have a tendency to concentrate at the surface, or interface between, for example, a liquid and a gas. They concentrate at the surface because of their unique chemical nature, with one end being hydrophobic (“water hating”, usually one or two hydrocarbon chains) and the other end hydrophilic (“water loving”, an ionic or polar group). By concentrating at the interface, they are able to satisfy their dual nature, by keeping the hydrophilic parts in contact with the water, and the hydrophobic part protruding into the air.

To understand the effect that these molecules have at the interface, we need to understand another fundamentally important property of interfaces, that of surface tension. Think about a dry paint brush. With nothing to hold the bristles together, they stay quite happily apart. However, if the brush is dipped into water and removed, the bristles stick together. It could be the fact that the bristles are wet that causes them to stick together, but if you then immerse the brush into a glass of water they separate. It is not just that they are wet, but the fact that there is an air/water interface around the bristles, and the surface tension of an interface causes it to become as small as possible. This is the same phenomenon that causes your hair to stick together when wet, but not when immersed in a swimming pool, and also causes drops of water and bubbles to assume a spherical shape. Surfactants, by concentrating at the air/water interface, lower the energy of the interface and reduce the tendency of the interface to shrink, so that much larger interfaces can be formed – for example bubbles and foams. This is why we can blow bubbles with a solution of detergent, whose main ingredient is a surfactant, but not with pure water.

From the time we take a shower in the morning, have a shave, clean our teeth and do all the normal things of life, surfactants affect us. Every product in your bathroom and laundry and most in your kitchen contain surfactants. In fact, just breathing while you are reading this wouldn’t be possible without the natural lung surfactant that lines the alveoli. This complex mixture of lipids and proteins serves to lower the surface tension inside the alveoli, and prevent the collapse that would surely occur if it were not there.

Just as we come across surfactants many times every day, surfactants are ubiquitous in industry. The global surfactant market has been estimated at 8570 kilotons, with the vast majority being in household detergents. Personal care products are also some of the major players, and surfactants are also important in the production of many common products. For example, the production of plastics by emulsion polymerisation accounts for the use of several hundred kilotons annually.

Food is also a major market for surfactants. Look at the labels of most foods and you will find such ingredients as emulsifiers, which are surfactants by another name. In that case, they act not at an air/water interface, but at an oil/water interface. However, the effect is the same, in that again the goal is to lower the surface tension. Many foods contain oils dispersed in water (salad dressing being a good example) and the presence of a surfactant helps the two phases to mix better than they otherwise would, and not to settle out into separated oil and water phases.

Given the ubiquitous nature of surfactants and their long usage in industry, is there any room for innovation in the market? In fact there are plenty of challenges even in such an established field. One area in which innovation is occurring is the development of “intelligent” surfactants that can respond to their environment. For example, it is useful to have a material that can act as a surfactant when we want it to, and then be turned off or even degraded when we are finished with it. This is the function of so-called “cleavable” surfactants, which can be split into their component parts by changing the chemical environment and be more easily removed from a waste stream than the native surfactant, which makes them much more acceptable in an environmentally-conscious world. The use of environmentally benign surfactants based on natural molecules like carbohydrates is also an area of interest, in which biodegradable materials can be used to take the place of more traditional and harder to degrade chemicals. It’s impossible to imagine a world without surfactants, and whether we are aware of their presence or not, they are the chemical world’s quiet achievers!



Member News


Professor Max Lu in top 50 influential Chinese in the World

Professor Max Lu, ANA director and director of the ARC for Functional Nanomaterials, was the only Australian to make a list of the top 50 most influential Chinese in the world. The Phoenix Weekly compiled list including Professor Lu among the 10 leaders in academia and science.

Australian Institute for Bioengineering & Nanotechnology Building Opens

Following 2 years in construction, the purpose built Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN) opened in October at the University of Queensland’s St Lucia campus. The Institute is Australia's first purpose-built facility for research combining the biological, chemical and physical sciences. It also has a strong focus on working with industry and commercialisation of outcomes.

ANA member companies win Government Grants

Congratulations to ANA members who were successful in attracting grants. Microwave and Materials Design Pty. Ltd (M&MD) successfully obtained a $2.37million from AusIndustry, which will allow them to complete further research and development on their superconducting microwave filters for use in cell phone networks. Bio-Layer Pty. Limited successfully obtained $2.67 million from AusIndustry to support the development and commercialisation of its futuristic abiotics research program. Acme Nano Products Pty. Ltd successfully obtained a State Development QIDS grant with Flexitech, for research and development of coatings incorporating beneficial nanotechnology based materials.

Queensland Department of State Development appoints new Nanotechnology Manager

Mr James Vuong has been appointed the nanotechnology representative within the Queensland Department of State Development. James will continue working with the Queensland nanotechnology community to progress the government’s Nanotechnology Action Agenda.

ANA Executive Member begins new role at CSIRO Mining and Exploration

ANA executive member Dr. Peter Kambouris has left Future Materials to join the CSIRO Mining and Exploration unit based near the Queensland Centre for Advanced Technology (QCAT), at Pullenvale in Brisbane. Our best wishes to Peter.